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Animal Disease Surveillance

The Department of Animal Husbandry and Animal Welfare is implementing the central sector scheme on Animal Disease Surveillance since 1989. The main objective of the scheme are :
(1) To collect, compile, analyse and interpret data on prevalence of various diseases of Livestock and Poultry
(2) to study the patterns of various epidemics under different geographical areas of the Union Territory
(3) To forecast the occurrence of diseases on the basis of data of on the basis of disease of outbreaks
(4) To workout the morbidity and mortality covering various factors such as age, breed, species and sex
(5) To prepare chart on outbreak of diseases in the Union Territory for the past 7 years
(6) To prepare map showing the vulnerable areas. Detailed schedule of annual disease surveillance for the past seven years.

Animal Disease monitoring describes ongoing efforts directed at assessing the health and disease status of animals within a particular animal population or say the union territory as a whole. The term “Disease Surveillance” Can be used to describe a more active system and implies that some form of directed action can be taken if the data collected and interpreted from field level indicate the possibility of a disease outbreak above a certain threshold. By this systematic analysis the probability of occurrence of a disease, its geographic and temporal patterns in economic impact relating to production can be forecasted. This monitoring system can also be used as a tool for decision making regarding effectiveness of health programmes and for planning for future disease Control programmes. In short Epidemiology is the study of the frequency distribution and determinants of health and disease in population.

For the effective management of Animal disease Surveillance schemes, the epidemiolgical units could be set up under Animal Disease Surveillance scheme for easy data collection Data collection is a very essential component of any survey or analytic study. The basic data required for animal disease surveillance units Which are the Veterinary Institutions spread all over the Union Territory of Puducherry which extends Veterinary Aid to the farmer. The Monthly data from the Veterinary Institutions are collected month-wise by the Joint Director(Animal Disease Surveillance), Animal Husbandry and Animal Welfare, Puducherry and are finally transmitted to the computer cell of the Department. Based on the data collected monthly annual reports are prepared. Analaysed reports are compiled and sent to Government of India, New Delhi .

Diagnostic facilities available at the clinical lab

  1. 1. Haematology (Blood analysis)
    1. Blood smear staining for parasites by Leishman/Giemsa/Wrights technique
    2. Differential lencocyte count (DLC) in stained blood smear.
    3. Thick smear examination for protozoans.
    4. Whole blood examination – WBC count.

  2. 2. Skin scrapings examination
    For the presence of mites & dernatophytes by lactophenol cotton blue staining technique

  3. 3. Dung/Faecal sample/Rectal swabs
    Dung using 3 different methods
    1. Direct smear examination
    2. Sedimentation technique
    3. Floatation technique.

  4. 4. Urine examination
    1. Using urine analysis strip for specific gravity, pH. Leucocytes, nitrite, proteins, ketones, glucose. Urobilinogen, Bilirubin and blood /Hb.
    2. Qualitative analysis for presence of albumin, glucose, ketone bodies, bile salts and bile pigments.
    3. Titratable acidity estimation in urine.
    4. Microscopic examination for presence of urinary sediments, casts, bacteria & protozoa.
    5. Cubonis test for pregnancy diagnosis in mare.

  5. 5. Acid fast staining
    Staining for acid fast bacilli using ZN concentrated carbol fuclusion Loefflers alkaline methylene blue & acid alcohol

  6. 6. Antibiotic sensitivity testing
    For detecting sensitivity to different antibiotics in milk samples and uterine discharges

  7. 7. Vaginal cytology
    In samples from canine samples, it is done using leishman staining

  8. 8. Examination for mastitis
    Done by using brom thymol blue test and whiteside test for bovine milk samples

  9. 9. Wart vaccines
    Autogenous formalin inactivated vaccines prepared from the papilloma from the affected animals

  10. 10. Complete postmortem examination
    For lab animals and domestic birds namely rabbit, chicken, turkey, pigeon, guinea fowl, duck, goose, budgerigar, parrots etc.

  11. 11. Processing of brain samples of bovine
    Processing done in 10% formalin for sending to Bangalore for BSE examination

  12. 12. Preserved specimen
    Collected from slaughter house (or) under field conditions (or) during post mortem examination and preserved in 10% formalin

  13. 13. Abortus Bang Ring test
    For detection of brucellosis in milk samples from suspected animals
Instruments available at present.
  1. Fully automated haematology analyzer ( In whole blood-18 parameters estimated)
  2. Semi automated biochemistry analyzer ( in serum samples)
  3. Monocular microscope with 5 X, 10 X,45 X, 100 X objective and 15X eyepiece
  4. Autoclave
  5. Hot air owen
  6. Water bath
  7. Refrigerator
  8. Double distillation apparatus
  9. Incubator
  10. Centrifuge
  11. Electronic weighing balance
  12. Laminar flow unit

A Background Note on the Implementation of Centrally Sponsored Schemes of Government of India Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries ( Dadf) New Delhi in the Union Territory of Puducherry.

In order to control the economically important livestock diseases and to undertake the obligatory functions related to animal health in the country, Central Government is implementing the following Schemes.

Livestock Health & Disease Control (LH & DC) A centrally sponsored macro-management scheme implemented during 10th plan. The Scheme has the following components.

Assistance to States for Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD) Under this component, assistance is provided for control of economically important diseases of livestock and poultry by way of immunization, strengthening of existing State Veterinary Biological Production Units, strengthening of existing State Disease Diagnostic Laboratories, holding workshops/seminars and in-service training to Veterinarians and Para-veterinarians. This schemes aims at to control and eradicate economically important animal diseases namely FMD, PPR, Haemorrhagic Septicemia , Ranikhet disease, IBD and Rabies in the U.T. of Puducherry.
Pattern of Assistance: 100% central assistance

National Project on Rinderpest Eradication (NPRE) The objective of the scheme is to strengthen the veterinary services and to eradicate Rinderpest and Contagious Bovine Pleuro-Pneumonia (CBPP) and to obtain freedom from Rinderpest & CBPP infection following the pathway prescribed by Office International des Epizooties (OIE), Paris. The first stage of “Provisional freedom from Rinderpest disease” for the whole country was achieved with effect from 1st March 1998. The second stage of “Freedom from Rinderpest disease” for the country with zones was approved by OIE on 27-05-2004. For attaining the third and final stage of “Freedom from Rinderpest Infection”, the dossier has been submitted to OIE.
Pattern of Assistance: 100% central assistance

Foot & Mouth Disease Control Programme (FMD-CP) To prevent economic losses due to FMD and to develop herd immunity in cloven-footed animals, Foot and Mouth Disease Control Programme (FMD-CP) is being implemented with 100% central funding as cost of vaccine, maintenance of cold chain and other logistic support to undertake vaccination. The State Governments are providing other infrastructure and manpower. Six rounds of vaccinations have been completed in the U.T. of Puducherry. Pre and post vaccination serum samples are collected for serosurveillance.
Pattern of Assistance: 100% central assistance

Professional Efficiency Development (PED) The objective of this scheme is to regulate veterinary practice and to maintain register of veterinary practitioners as per the provisions of Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984 (IVC Act). The scheme envisages establishing Veterinary Council of India at the Centre and the State Veterinary Councils in those states, which adopted the Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984.
Pattern of Assistance: 100% central assistance

Establishment & Strengthening of existing Veterinary Hospitals and Dispensaries (ESVHD) The scheme was taken up in 2012 - 13 with 100% central assistance for strengthening of existing Govt veterinary hospitals & sub - centers for extending quality services to livestock owners.

The Components of the scheme are:
  1. Establishment of new veterinary hospitals (new building & equipment)
  2. Establishment of new dispensaries (new building & equipment)
  3. Strengthening of existing hospitals (renovation of existing building and provision for additional equipment)
  4. Strengthening of existing dispensaries (renovation of existing building and provision for additional equipment)

In first phase, six veterinary dispensaries (Thirukanur, Villianur, Kariamanickam, Thattanchavady, Pondicherry, Villianur and Bahour) were taken for strengthening work. The sanction was obtained from Govt. during August 2012 and construction works in the six Veterinary Dispensaries were completed. In the second phase, Rs.48 lakhs was sanctioned in January 2014. Steps are taken to strengthen 7 veterinary dispensaries [4 in Karaikal (Karaikal, Nedungadu, Thennangudy, T.R.Pattinam), 2 in Pondicherry (Ariankuppam, Madagadipet) and 1 in Yanam].
Pattern of Assistance: 100% central assistance

National Animal Disease Reporting System (NADRS) The CSS is being implemented as per guidelines of GOI, MOA, DAD F, New Delhi to develop computerized system of timely animal disease reporting . Linkages between Blocks, Districts and State Head quarters and to Central Disease reporting and monitoring unit in New Delhi . All the activities related to development of software and installation of hardware’s etc will be carried out through National Informatics Centre. Online data regarding various animal diseases is updated on NADRS application website.
Hardware and VPN over broadband connection (BSNL ) has been given in 11 veterinary dispensaries in the U.T. of Puducherry. Four fax machines and one photocopier were purchased and workshop was conducted by N.I.C. Puducherry during the month of March 2012. Five days training was given to 60 veterinary officers and paravets on NADRS software by Govt. of India, through NIC, during January and February 2013. Two monthly bulletins were published during January and February 2013.
Pattern of Assistance: 100% central assistance

National Control Programme on Brucellosis This is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme launched by GOI during 2010-11 for the control of Brucellosis a disease of zoonotic importance and causes infertility, reduced production of milk among animals. One time vaccination at calf hood will give life long immunity. The amount provided is for screening of animals and vaccination of all female calves of 6-8 months of age against Brucellosis as a preventive measure .No guidelines have been received for implementation of the scheme.
Pattern of Assistance: 100% central assistance

National control programme on Peste des pestis Ruminants (PPR) A new scheme launched by GoI during 2010-11 for the control of disease Peste des petites Ruminants (PPR), a viral disease of sheep and goats causing huge loss due to morbidity and mortality. The programme involves intensive vaccination against the disease. The programme include identification of target animals, procurement of cold chain equipments and vaccine, assessment of randomly collected samples of vaccine for their quality, mass vaccination, virus typing in case of outbreaks, Sero surveillance activities. The fund provided by GOI is for procurement of vaccine, strengthening of labs, vaccine production centres, TA/DA, hiring of vehicles, information and communication campaign, health cards, consumables etc.
Pattern of Assistance: 100% central assistance

Livestock Census The aim of Livestock Census is to collect detailed information on livestock population category wise along with age, sex-composition, etc. It also provides disaggregated information on poultry, animal operated agricultural implements and machinery and fishery statistics. Enumeration is done on all India basis and covers district-wise information with rural/urban break-up. In addition to this, it provides Breedwise information on Livestock. The works related to 19th Livestock Census which has been done from 15th September 2012 to 15th October 2012 are being completed as per the guidelines issued by the Govt. of India. The amount provided is for settling enumeration charges, printing and contingent expenses, honorarium and supervision charges, training expenses etc and also for the conduct of bread survey.
Pattern of Assistance: 100% central assistance

Integrated Sample Survey Scheme for Estimation of Major Livestock Products The main objective of the scheme is to estimate the production of milk, egg, wool and meat, State-wise and cost of production per unit of milk and egg for evaluation of reasonable remunerative prices to the producers. Regular seasonal surveys for estimation of production of major livestock products, breeds, composition and other related data like feed and fodder consumption by animals, utilization of milk, eggs and utilization of dung etc are carried out and compiled.
Pattern of Assistance: 100% central assistance

Physical targets and achievements under Assistance to States for Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD) during (2016-17) in respect of U.T. of Puducherry.

(Exp. Rs. in lakhs)

Particulars Target (2016-17) Physical Achievements (2016-17) Total exp. Central Share State share Remarks
Physical - - - - - -
No. of vaccination
(disease –wise )
- - - - - -
(i) FMD 1,40,000 1,41,178 -- 100% Under FMD(CP) -- Purchased vaccine from Indian Immunologicals Ltd., Hyderabad.
(ii) HS 30,000 20,164 -- -- 100% --
(iii) BQ -- 90 -- -- 100% --
(iv) Anthrax -- 2 -- -- 100% --
(v) ETV Vaccine -- 630 -- -- 100% --
(vi) SP -- 1650 -- -- 100% --
(vii) ND (F1/R2B) 1,30,000 32,487 -- -- 100% --
(viii) FP -- -- -- -- 100% --
(ix) IBD -- 23,600 -- -- 100% --
(ix) Others -- -- -- -- 100% --
a)ARV -- 5082 -- -- 100% --
b)DHLPPI+PARVO -- 2903 -- -- 100% --
Total 3,00,000 2,27,786 -- -- -- --

Foot and Mouth Affected Cow

Image of Foot and Mouth Affected Cow

Symptoms of Ppr ( Pest Des Petit Ruminant) in Goat & Sheep

Image of Symptoms of PPR in Goat and Sheep 1
Image of Symptoms of PPR in Goat and Sheep 2
Image of Symptoms of PPR in Goat and Sheep 3

Image of Symptoms of PPR in Goat and Sheep 4
Image of Symptoms of PPR in Goat and Sheep 5
Image of Symptoms of PPR in Goat and Sheep 6