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F. A. Q.

F. A. Q.


  • C A T T L E :
  1. We have been observing a 4-day-old calf whose cord has dried, but the area is protruding. Would this be considered a navel hernia, and is this something that will go away as the calf grows? Or is this something that a vet should address? 
    Could be, maybe not, I have a 4 month old heifer that looks like a Brahma in the naval area, whenever the vet stops by he checks her out and just shakes his head, not a hernia, just a floppy naval area.
  2. What is the proper way to tube feed a calf? 
    Have someone hold the bottle so contents do not pour out or into the calf until the tube is set. I assume you have esophageal feeder?  It must have the little bulb on the end of the tube or you will likely put the tube in the lungs. Now straddle the calf and open its mouth wide enough to get the tube in the mouth and guide it to the back of the throat gently, then pushing with a slight upward motion feel it pops past the vocal cords. It should easily go in the calf about a foot. You can feel the bulge of the bulb through the fur on his neck. I prefer a flexible tube but many of the ones available are rigid so it is a little more uncomfortable on the calf. When you are satisfied that it is in the oesophagus, firmly hold the tube in his mouth and let your partner hold the jug up to allow the milk to flow in by gravity. Then slowly pull the tube out and let a little milk end up on his tongue to help activate his senses. One to two litters is plenty for the first feed.
  3. How do I care for a new-born calf? 
    Nature usually runs its course and everything goes fine with new-born calves. But there are several things that a rancher needs to check for, and several things you can do to make sure that your calf gets off to a good start. In order to survive, your calf absolutely MUST get a good dose of colostrum. Colostrum is the first milk from its momma and is rich in nutrients it needs for the calf to survive. Your primary concern when you first spot your new-born calf is to make sure that the calf gets up and nurses from the momma. If there is some problem preventing the calf from nursing, you either need to fix the problem or give the calf alternative colostrum (such as frozen colostrum or dry-mix colostrum).
  4. What is Brucellosis? 
    Here is an excerpt from UNEB on brucellosis. "Brucellosis (contagious abortion, Bangs disease). Although federal and state regulations have helped to control this disease, brucellosis is still a threat. Brucellosis is caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus and it is spread via infected placentas, vaginal discharges, and aborted foetuses. Following the ingestion of B. abortus, susceptible cows or heifers may have abortions, retained placentas, weak calves, or infertility problems. Milk from an infected cow also may harbor B. abortus. The infected milk creates a public health problem because B. abortus causes brucellosis ("undulant fever") in humans.
  5. What are scours? 
    Scours is diarrhea in calves that can be either viral or bacterial in nature. It can be life-threatening if not dealt with immediately. It can also be transmitted to humans if the proper precautions aren't followed.
  6. What is the cause of mastitis? What are the clinical signs for it? And how can it be treated? 
    Mastitis occurs most frequently when you have a heavy milking cow and a calf that is not eating enough. The downside of cows that produce lots of milk is they are more likely to get mastitis and they are harder to keep through the winter. The upside is they raise the biggest calves. So you have to maintain a balance. More is not necessarily better. The factors mentioned by lisa are also possibilities.

    There a number of causes: stress infection, stepping on the bag, etc. One of the more prominent signs would be swelling in the udder. Treat dairy cattle with antibiotics usually up the quarter that is infected, but if you don't have a good diagnosis as to what strain of bacteria, it might not be easy to find the right antibiotic. Maybe you could get a sample run to see then you would know what to treat with.
  7. What can I do to prevent my cow from bloating? She bloats every time she eats feed?
    There are two temporary measures that will help alleviate the problem but it won't cure it. One is to get some mineral oil (about a quart or two) down her with a coke bottle or a tube (but it isn't a good idea if you don't know what you are doing with the tube), the other thing that works is Terramycin Crumbles (get it at your cattle supplies store) Mix it with her feed. There is a more permanent solution you can try & that is Pro-bios. It will put the bacteria back in the stomach so she can utilize her feed better. If she continues to bloat I would recommend a vet, or if you have already had one out you probably should consider selling her. There is also a bloat medicine you can buy but I have no idea what the name is ( ask at your store.)Hope this helps.
  8. What is artificial insemination (AI)? 
    Artificial insemination (AI) is the process of impregnating a cow with semen that has been removed from a bull. When done effectively, AI has a success rate similar to that of natural breeding. 
    AI is used for a variety of reasons, some of which include:
    1. Choosing the sire (or sires) for your breeding program from a world-wide pool of genetics.
    2. Avoiding the expense and added trouble of keeping bulls in the pasture.
    3. Breeding more cows to a single bull at one time than would be possible with natural breeding.
  9. How long can semen be stored? 
    Indefinitely you may lose some potency, but as long as the tank is full of nitrogen, it will keep for years. Use tongs to retrieve semen.
  10.  What is the normal temperature for cattle? 
    101.5 F +/- 1 degree, 38.5 C +/- .5 degree


  • P O U L T R Y :


  1. Which system of poultry is the best one for broilers and layers?
    Deep litter & Cage
  2. How to manage the poultry in the summer?
    Reduce temperature inside the poultry house;
    Feeding management
  3. How to manage the poultry in winter?
    Increase temperature inside the poultry house by heat source;
    Feeding management
  4. How to select the litter material?
    Soft, absorb moisture, easy removal, low chance of microbial multiplication  
  5. What is the vaccination schedule for broilers, layers, ducks, turkey, and desi fowl?
    • 1st day give 5% glucose in water.
    • 2nd to 4th day - antibiotic + Vit.A + B Complex.
    • 5th day - RDVF vaccination
    • 10th day - IBD vaccination
  6. How to dispose the dead birds?
    After Post-mortem burial & burning
  7. Is there any insurance poultry available to poultry?
  8. What is the importance of debeaking?
    Avoid cannibalism
  9. How to control the disease in a poultry farm?
    Isolation of diseased at the treatment
    Quarantine of newcomer
    Hygienic condition of the shed, Good nutrition, Deworming, Footbath.
  10. Should eggs be eaten Raw?
    No one should eat foods containing raw eggs. This includes "health food" milkshakes made with raw eggs, Caesar salad, Hollandaise sauce, and any other foods like homemade mayonnaise, ice cream which the egg ingredients are not cooked.
  11. Should You Wash Eggs before Storage?
    No. When the egg is laid, a protective coating is put on the outside by the hen.
  12. Why Do Hard-Cooked Eggs Spoil Faster than Fresh Eggs?
    When shell eggs are hard-cooked, the protective coating is washed away, leaving bare the pores in the shell for bacteria to enter and contaminate it. Hard-cooked eggs should be refrigerated within 2 hours of cooking and used within a week.
  13. Bringing Eggs Home from the Store 
    Take eggs straight home and store them immediately in the refrigerator set at 5 °C or below. Keep them in their carton and place them in the coldest part of the refrigerator, not in the door. Don’t wash eggs. That could remove the protective coating on the shell and increase the potential for bacteria on the shell to enter the egg.   
  1. What is the Cholesterol Content of Eggs?
    The most recent studies show that the cholesterol content of one large egg to be 213 milligrams. All of the cholesterol is in the yolk. 
    An egg is a good source of complete protein, vitamins A and B-12, riboflavin, folacin, iron, zinc, and phosphorus.
  2. Does the Colour of the Shell Affect the Egg’s Nutrients? 
    No. The breed of the hen determines the colour of her eggs.
  3. What Does It Mean When an Egg Floats in Water?
    An egg can float in water when its air cell has enlarged sufficiently to keep it buoyant. This means the egg is old Crack the egg into a bowl and examine it for an off-odour or unusable appearance before deciding to use or discard it. A spoiled egg will have an unpleasant odour when you break open the shell, either when raw or cooked.


  • G O A T :
  1. What are the breeds of goat suitable to Puducherry ?
    Tellicherry, Graded Goats.
  2. What are the goat farming methods?
    Intensive, semi-intensive, Extensive methods.
  3. What is the feature of caprine production?
    Goat meat has good demand, Goat milk &hide value is good
  4. Where can get training for caprine production?
    Local government veterinary Dispensaries and  RIVER, Puducherry.
  5. What are the steps to be taken for newborn kids?
    Membrane removal, Naval cord-cutting, Colostrum feeding.
  6. What is kid management?
    Feeding & Management of young goat
  7. What are the advantages of elevated goat shed?
    Good ventilation, droppings/urine fall down goat feels comfort in an elevated area.
  8. What is the status of artificial insemination in a goat?
    AI is done with Tellicherry Goat semen in all V.D.s
  9. What is the age at puberty of doe?
    6-8 Months
  10. What is the age at sexual maturity of goat?
    10-12 Months
  11. How much concentrate feed has to be offered to an adult goat?
    250- 500 grams / day
  12. What is the importance of goat milk?
    Tasty, good medicinal value, has a good market and price.