F. A. Q.
C A T T L E
have been observing a 4-day-old calf whose cord has dried, but the area
is protruding. Would this be considered a navel hernia, and is this
something that will go away as the calf grows? Or is this something that
a vet should address?
Could be, maybe not, I have a 4 month old heifer that looks like a
Brahma in the naval area, whenever the vet stops by he checks her out
and just shakes his head, not a hernia, just a floppy naval area.
is the proper way to tube feed a calf?
Have someone hold the bottle so contents do not pour out or into the
calf until the tube is set. I assume you have esophageal feeder? It
must have the little bulb on the end of the tube or you will likely put
the tube in the lungs. Now straddle the calf and open its mouth wide
enough to get the tube in the mouth and guide it to the back of the
throat gently, then pushing with a slight upward motion feel it pops
past the vocal cords. It should easily go in the calf about a foot. You
can feel the bulge of the bulb through the fur on his neck. I prefer a
flexible tube but many of the ones available are rigid so it is a little
more uncomfortable on the calf. When you are satisfied that it is in the
oesophagus, firmly hold the tube in his mouth and let your partner hold
the jug up to allow the milk to flow in by gravity. Then slowly pull the
tube out and let a little milk end up on his tongue to help activate his
senses. One to two litters is plenty for the first feed.
I care for a new-born calf?
Nature usually runs its course and everything goes fine with new-born
calves. But there are several things that a rancher needs to check for,
and several things you can do to make sure that your calf gets off to a
good start. In order to survive, your calf absolutely MUST get a good
dose of colostrum. Colostrum is the first milk from its momma and is
rich in nutrients it needs for the calf to survive. Your primary concern
when you first spot your new-born calf is to make sure that the calf
gets up and nurses from the momma. If there is some problem preventing
the calf from nursing, you either need to fix the problem or give the
calf an alternative colostrum (such as frozen colostrum or dry-mix
Here is an excerpt from UNEB on brucellosis. "Brucellosis (contagious
abortion, Bangs disease). Although federal and state regulations have
helped to control this disease, brucellosis is still a threat.
Brucellosis is caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus and it is spread
via infected placentas, vaginal discharges and aborted foetuses.
Following the ingestion of B. abortus, susceptible cows or heifers may
have abortions, retained placentas, weak calves or infertility problems.
Milk from an infected cow also may harbor B. abortus. The infected milk
creates a public health problem because B. abortus causes brucellosis
("undulant fever") in humans.
Scours is diarrhea in calves that can be either viral or bacterial in
nature. It can be life threatening if not dealt with immediately. It can
also be transmitted to humans if the proper precautions aren't followed.
is the cause of mastitis? What are the clinical signs for it? And how
can it be treated?
Mastitis occurs most frequently when you have a heavy milking cow and a
calf that is not eating enough. The down side of cows that produce lots
of milk is they are more likely to get mastitis and they are harder to
keep through the winter. The up side is they raise the biggest calves.
So you have to maintain a balance. More is not necessarily better. The
factors mentioned by lisa are also possibilities.
There a number of causes: stress infection, stepping on the bag, etc.
One of the more prominent signs would be swelling in the udder. Treat
dairy cattle with antibiotics usually up the quarter that is infected,
but if you don't have a good diagnosis as to what strain of bacteria, it
might not be easy to find the right antibiotic. Maybe you could get a
sample run to see then you would know what to treat with.
can I do to prevent my cow from bloating? She bloats every time she eats
There are two temporary measures that will help alleviate the problem
but it won't cure it. One is to get some mineral oil (about a quart or
two) down her with a coke bottle or a tube (but it isn't a good idea if
you don't know what you are doing with the tube), the other thing that
works is Terramycin Crumbles (get it at your cattle supplies store) Mix
it with her feed. There is a more permanent solution you can try & that
is Pro-bios. It will put the bacteria back in the stomach so she can
utilize her feed better. If she continues to bloat I would recommend a
vet, or if you have already had one out you probably should consider
selling her. There is also a bloat medicine you can buy but I have no
idea what the name is ( ask at your store.)Hope this helps.
artificial insemination (AI)?
Artificial insemination (AI) is the process of impregnating a cow with
semen that has been removed from a bull. When done effectively, AI has
success rate similar to that of natural breeding.
AI is used for a variety of reasons, some of which include:
Choosing the sire (or sires) for your breeding program from a
world-wide pool of genetics.
Avoiding the expense and added trouble of keeping bulls in pasture.
Breeding more cows to a single bull at one time than would be
possible with natural breeding.
How long can semen be stored?
Indefinitely you may lose some potency, but as long as the tank is full
of nitrogen, it will keep for years. Use tongs to retrieve semen.
is the normal temperature for cattle?
101.5 F +/- 1 degree, 38.5 C +/- .5 degree
P O U L T R
system of poultry is best one for broilers and layers?
Deep litter & Cage
manage the poultry in summer?
Reduce temperature inside the poultry house;
manage the poultry in winter?
Increase temperature inside the poultry house by heat source;
select the litter material?
Soft, absorb moisture, easy removal, low chance of microbial
the vaccination schedule for broilers, layers, ducks, turkey and desi
day give 5% glucose in water.
to 4th day - antibiotic + Vit.A + B Complex.
day - RDVF vaccination
day - IBD vaccination
dispose the dead birds?
After Post-mortem burial & burning
there any insurance poultry available to poultry?
is importance of debeaking?
control the disease in a poultry farm?
Isolation of diseased at treatment
Quarantine of new comer
Hygienic condition of shed, Good nutrition, Deworming, Foot bath.
eggs be eaten Raw?
No one should eat foods containing raw eggs. This includes "health food"
milk shakes made with raw eggs, Caesar salad, Hollandaise sauce, and any
other foods like homemade mayonnaise, ice cream which the egg
ingredients are not cooked.
You Wash Eggs before Storage?
No. When the egg is laid, a protective coating is put on the outside by
Hard-Cooked Eggs Spoil Faster than Fresh Eggs?
When shell eggs are hard cooked, the protective coating is washed away,
leaving bare the pores in the shell for bacteria to enter and
contaminate it. Hard-cooked eggs should be refrigerated within 2 hours
of cooking and used within a week.
Bringing Eggs Home from the Store
Take eggs straight home and store them immediately in the refrigerator
set at 5 °C or below. Keep them in their carton and place them in the
coldest part of the refrigerator, not in the door. Don’t wash eggs. That
could remove the protective coating on the shell and increase the
potential for bacteria on the shell to enter the egg.
is the Cholesterol Content of Eggs?
The most recent studies show that cholesterol content of one large egg
to be 213 milligrams. All of the cholesterol is in the yolk.
An egg is a good source of complete protein, vitamins A and B-12,
riboflavin, folacin, iron, zinc, and phosphorus.
the Colour of the Shell Affect the Egg’s Nutrients?
No. The breed of the hen determines the colour of her eggs.
What Does It Mean When an Egg Floats in Water?
An egg can float in water when its air cell has enlarged sufficiently to
keep it buoyant. This means the egg is old Crack the egg into a bowl and
examine it for an off-odour or unusable appearance before deciding to
use or discard it. A spoiled egg will have an unpleasant odour when you
break open the shell, either when raw or cooked.
G O A T :
are the breeds of goat suitable to Puducherry ?
Tellicherry, Graded Goats.
are the goat farming methods?
Intensive, semi intensive, Extensive methods.
is the feature of caprine production?
Goat meat has good demand, Goat milk &hide value is good
can get training for caprine production?
Local government veterinary Dispensaries and RIVER, Puducherry.
are the steps to be taken for newborn kids?
Membrane removal, Naval cord cutting, Colostrum feeding.
is kid management?
Feeding & Management of young goat
are the advantages of elevated goat shed?
Good ventilation, droppings / urine fall down goat feels comfort in
is the status of artificial insemination in goat?
AI done with Tellicherry Goat semen in all VDs
is the age at puberty of doe?
is the age at sexual maturity of goat?
much concentrate feed has to be offered to an adult goat?
250- 500 grams / day
What is the importance of goat milk?
Tasty, good medicinal value, has good market and price.